New PDF release: Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

By David Crecraft, Stephen Gergely

ISBN-10: 0750650958

ISBN-13: 9780750650953

The content material has been rigorously designed to fulfill the necessities of first and moment yr scholars of digital engineering, communications engineering and telecommunications, following complete honours measure courses or two-year classes together with HNC/HND.

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Additional resources for Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing

Example text

The definition of the bel is p Power gain in bels = log^Q— (2-49) P2 Since 1 bel represents a power ratio of 10 it is more practical to use a unit one-tenth the size called the decibel (dB). 26 (from 101ogio(/'l//'2)=l). In many applications, the quantity measured and used in calculations is voltage rather than power. 50) where F i s the rms value of voltage. 3 for an explanation of rms. 54) Note that this form is very often used in practice even when the condition of the resistances being the same is not met.

The two straight line asymptotes intersect the frequency/ = / o . 707 ^ - 3 dB as before. 25. 61). It varies from 90° at low frequencies to 0° at high ones. 26. As in the case of the low-pass filters two possible straight line approximations are shown. One of the advantages of using the Bode plot to display the frequency response is that it is very easy to draw the straight Hne approximations to both the magnitude and the phase plots. The approximation is sufficiently good for most practical purposes providing that the divergence around/o is borne in mind.

Processing is essentially a drive for reducing the time-constant and therefore the rise time of devices and circuits. The processors in personal computers at the time of writing operate at a frequency of more than 1 GHz corresponding to a pulse duration of 1 ns or less. The rise time tr of the output is defined as the time taken for the output to rise from 10% ^lo to 90% ^90 of the maximum value. 34. 82) RC and also the cut-off frequency/o = j ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ clearly related by / . 83) It is generally considered that a pulse length ^d of about three times the rise time t^ is required to transmit a pulse without undue distortion.

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Analog Electronics: Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing by David Crecraft, Stephen Gergely


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