By Valerie Adams
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Additional info for An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation
Even if A and B have exactly the same entailments, it seems that two sentences C(A) and C(B) that differ from one another only in that C(B) contains B where C(A) contains A may differ in their entailments. There are other ways in which sentences that express the same content can, in some sense, differ in meaning. For example, consider the different utterances in (57), the first of which places focus on Mary, the second of which places focus on cake (CAPS indicate focal stress). The sentences in (58), while structurally different, are identical in focal structure (and arguably also in entailments) to those in (57).
If A entails B, then asserting that A is true commits us to the truth of B. If A presupposes B, then to assert A, deny A, wonder whether A, or suppose Ato express any of these attitudes toward A is generally to imply B, to suggest that B is true and, moreover, uncontroversially so. That is, considering A from almost any standpoint seems already to assume or presuppose the truth of B; B is part of the background against which we (typically) consider A. Consider, for example, the sentences in (28).
6) a. If Alice wins a fellowship, she can finish her thesis. b. If Alice doesn't win a fellowship, she can't finish her thesis. (7) a. Maria and Alberto are married. b. Maria and Alberto are married to each other. (8) a. Only Amy knows the answer. b. Amy knows the answer. (9) a. Mary is an Italian violinist. b. Some Italian is a violinist. (10) a. Some student will not go to the party. b. Not every student will go to the party. (11) a. Allegedly, John is a good player. b. John is a good player.
An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation by Valerie Adams