By Pira International Ltd
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Domestically produced renewable fuels must play an integral role in a plan to promote energy independence. If renewable fuels are to displace significant amounts of petroleum as transportation fuel, we must take bold, aggressive steps to achieve this end. Expanded use of biodiesel will help make America more energy independent and the nation as a whole will reap the benefits’. The Hulshof/Pomeroy bill amends the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to make permanent important incentives for biodiesel and bioethanol: ‘Renewable fuels are a critical component to our nation becoming more energy independent.
By 1983 the process for producing fuel-quality, engine-tested biodiesel was completed and published internationally. An Austrian company, Gaskoks, obtained the technology from the South African Agricultural Engineers; the company erected the first biodiesel pilot plant in November 1987, and the first industrial-scale plant in April 1989 (with a capacity of 30,000 tonnes of rapeseed per annum). In the 1990s, plants were opened in many European countries, including the Czech Republic, Germany and Sweden.
Water contamination It is unacceptable for biodiesel to contain water. Although it is hydrophobic (nonmiscible with water molecules), it remains hygroscopic (attracting water molecules from atmospheric moisture). Also, water from the production process itself, or that which comes Page 24 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2007 3 Advances in Biodiesel Production processes for biodiesel from storage tank condensation, can be present as well. Water is an unwelcome ingredient in the final product because: it reduces bulk fuel combustion heat, which produces more smoke, harder starting, and less power; it causes corrosion of vital fuel system components, including fuel pumps, injector pumps and fuel lines; it freezes to form ice crystals at 0°C (32°F).
Advances in Biodiesel by Pira International Ltd