By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The experiences during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective classification, yet those range in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical homes, an adjective type might beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective category is big and will be freely extra to, in others it truly is small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The publication will curiosity students and complicated scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Additional resources for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology)
It was remarked in §5 that, as a consequence of the Eurocentricism of much linguistic work, there is sometimes a reluctance to use the term 'adjective' for a class of words which does not have similar grammatical properties to nouns (as adjectives do in European languages). From this viewpoint, words which cannot function as modifier within an NP (except in nominalized form) may appear un-adjectivelike. As a consequence, Derbyshire (1979,1985) prefers not to use the label 'adjective' for the class of words just described, in Hixkaryana and other north Carib languages.
The O of the transitive verbs corresponds to the prepositional argument in English. For example: (17) Intransitive maarau 'be happy' vu'u 'be clever' vuuvuu 'be jealous' rere 'be afraid' dou 'be brave' Transitive maarau-ta'ina 'be happy about' vu'u-ta'ina 'be clever at' vuuvuu-ta'ina 'be jealous of rere-va'ina 'be afraid of dou-va'ina 'be brave at' Now some verbs in Fijian may choose between two transitive suffixes, which bring different participants into the second core argument slot. g. agun)' 1 Adjective Classes in Typological Perspective 19 A few of the verbs relating to the HUMAN PROPENSITY semantic type can also make a choice of transitive suffix, effectively corresponding to a choice of preposition in English.
There is no obvious clear-cut criterion to distinguish adjectives from nouns, the two types of word having virtually the same morphological and syntactic properties. Alpher is, however, able to suggest five fairly subtle properties in which nouns and adjectives differ. One he labels grading': 'Both "nouns" and "adjectives" occur with postposed morr "real, actual, very". With common nouns, morr has the sense "actual present-day", as in kay morr "the present-day (steel) axe", or "real and not imaginary", as in warrchuwrr morr "a real woman (not one in a dream)".
Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology) by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald