By Richard D. Bardgett
Aboveground-Belowground Linkages presents the main updated and finished synthesis of modern advances in our realizing of the jobs that interactions among aboveground and belowground groups play in regulating the constitution and serve as of terrestrial ecosystems, and their responses to international switch. It charts the old improvement of this box of ecology and evaluates what should be discovered from the new proliferation of reports at the ecological and biogeochemical value of aboveground-belowground linkages. The ebook is established round 4 key themes: biotic interactions within the soil; plant neighborhood results; the function of aboveground shoppers; and the impression of species earnings and losses. A concluding bankruptcy attracts jointly this knowledge and identifies a few cross-cutting topics, together with attention of aboveground-belowground feedbacks that happen at assorted spatial and temporal scales, the implications of those feedbacks for environment tactics, and the way aboveground-belowground interactions hyperlink to human-induced international swap.
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Extra info for Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution)
First, it is known that microbial activities produce a wide variety of nitrogen forms in soil solution, including inorganic nitrogen forms and a variety of amino acids of varying complexity (Kielland 1994), which provides a variety of possible resources for plant uptake. Second, several studies show that plant species are highly versatile in their ability to uptake different chemical forms of nitrogen (Weigelt et al. 2005; Harrison et al. 2007, 2008), and that species differ in their ability to uptake nitrogen forms, pointing to them having niches based on nitrogen form (Miller and Bowman 2002, 2003; Weigelt et al.
However, as stressed by these authors, better characterization of these parameters in multiple ecosystems is necessary to determine whether these mechanisms explain the lack of symbiotic nitrogenﬁxers and thus the maintenance of nitrogen limitation in old-growth forests. Symbiotic associations between nitrogen-ﬁxing bacteria and plants also play a key role in vegetation succession, by raising soil nitrogen contents during early succession to levels needed to support later successional species (Chapin et al.
2007), as will be described further in Chapter 5. The soil also contains a wide variety of root-feeding animals, including parasitic nematodes and insects, which selectively feed on roots mostly on the basis of their palatability. As with other root-associated organisms, such selective feeding differentially inﬂuences the performance of plant species in mixed communities, thereby altering vegetation dynamics. A classic example of the capacity of belowground insect herbivores to inﬂuence vegetation dynamics is the work of Brown and Gange (1989; 1992), which used selective insecticides to exclude both aboveground and belowground insects from grasslands differing in successional stage in southern England.
Aboveground-Belowground Linkages: Biotic Interactions, Ecosystem Processes, and Global Change (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution) by Richard D. Bardgett