By Paolo Virno
Globalization is forcing us to reconsider the various different types -- equivalent to "the people" -- that regularly were linked to the now eroding nation. Italian political philosopher Paolo Virno argues that the class of "multitude," elaborated by way of Spinoza and for the main half left fallow because the 17th century, is a more robust device to research modern concerns than the Hobbesian idea of "people," favourite by means of classical political philosophy. Hobbes, who detested the idea of multitude, outlined it as shunning political team spirit, resisting authority, and not moving into lasting agreements. "When they insurgent opposed to the state," Hobbes wrote, "the voters are the multitude opposed to the people." however the multitude isn't only a adverse suggestion, it's a wealthy idea that permits us to learn anew plural reports and kinds of nonrepresentative democracy. Drawing from philosophy of language, political economics, and ethics, Virno exhibits that being overseas, "not-feeling-at-home-anywhere," is a that forces the multitude to position its belief within the mind. In end, Virno means that the metamorphosis of the social structures within the West over the last 20 years is resulting in a paradoxical "Communism of the Capital."
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Additional info for A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life (Semiotext(e) / Foreign Agents)
That is true, above all, where cooperation is truly a specific "product" of the activity of labor, something which is promoted, elaborated. refined by those who cooperate. The general intellect demands virtuosic action (that is, in the broad sense, political action). precisely because a consistent portion of this intellect is not channeled in the machine system. but manifests itself in the direct activity of human labor, in its linguistic cooperation. --Page 66-The intellect, the pure faculty of thought, the simple fact of having-a-language: let us repeat, here lies the "score" which is always and again performed by the post-Fordist virtuosos.
Thus, the spectacle has a double nature: a specific product of a particular industry, but also, at the same time, the quintessence of the mode of production in its entirety. , Thesis 15) What presents the spectacle, so to speak, are the productive forces themselves of society as they overlap, in ever-greater measure, with linguisticcommunicative competencies and with the general intellect. The double nature of the spectacle is reminiscent, in some ways, of the double nature of money. As you know, money is a commodity among others, manufactured by the State Mint, in Rome, endowed of a metallic or paper form.
But, as numerous as the intersections were, Labor, Intellect, and Politics remained essentially distinct. For structural reasons. Labor is the organic exchange with nature, the production of new objects, a repetitive and foreseeable process. The pure intellect has a solitary and inconspicuous character: the meditation of the thinker escapes the notice of others; theoretical reflection mutes the world of appearances. Differently from Labor, political Action comes between social relations, not between natural materials; it has to do with the possible and the unforeseen; it does not obstruct, with ulterior motives, the context in which it operates; rather, it modifies this very context.
A Grammar of the Multitude: For an Analysis of Contemporary Forms of Life (Semiotext(e) / Foreign Agents) by Paolo Virno