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By Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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3 Methodology Research on domain-categorization – as lexical typology in general – has on the whole made relatively little use of secondary sources, but often relies on primary data. , Nerlove & Romney’s 1967; or Greenberg 1980) largely utilize the available earlier descriptions of particular languages, but this, in turn, depends on the long descriptive tradition of the domain starting with Morgan’s (1870) early typology of kinship systems. Viberg’s study (1984, 2001) of perception verbs involves a combination of secondary data sources (dictionaries, word lists and more detailed descriptions) and systematic translation of sentences in a questionnaire; Ricca’s (1993) study of deictic verbs is mainly based on a questionnaire.

Male relative of one’s patriline’ for ‘father’ and ‘father’s brother’). , the sibling terminology (where the generalizations can be formulated as lexicalization implications); this, in turn, can be explained by the role of the corresponding relations in regulating marriage possibilities (for details cf. Evans 2001). Most lexicalization generalizations build on the unequal status of different words and other lexicalized expressions – either for encoding a particular conceptual domain, or in general.

A few of the other surprises include the non-universal status of “water” and “sun” based on the fact that languages can have more than one word for each of those (cf. “hot water” vs. “non-hot water in Japanese, “sun low in the sky” vs. “hot sun overhead” in Nyawaygi, Australia). Emotions, contrary to many common assumptions, turn out to be highly culture- and language-specific. “Mother”, in its biological sense, has reasonable chances to survive as a lexical universal too, whereas “father’s” chances are considerably lower (since his role is much more subject to social factors).

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A Compositional Semantics for Multiple Focus by Manfred Krifka, Austinlsaarbriicken

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